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How to Learn the Basic Word List      241

(2)  Words containing the sound 3 (p 83) represented by the French

J oijeu (game) or G of rouge (red)j e g vision or treasure

(3)  Words beginning with J and G pronounced as J in jam> e g

gentle') giant} jacket

(4)  Neaily all words containing O/, e g boil, moisture^ soil

(5)  All words in which OU stands for long u3 e g group, soup, tour

(6)  Words beginning with CH followed by a (where ch = tsh\ e g

challenges change, charm

(7)  Words with final GUE, initial QU, and final QUE, e g fatigue,

quarter, brusque

(8)  All words in which final S and T are mute, e g debris, bouquet

(9)  Nearly all words ending in -ANT, -ENT, e g  agent, merchant,

student

(10) Most polysyllabic words with end stress, e g buffoon, campaign,
elite

At one time the habit of attaching Latin affixes to native words or
words containing a Greek or Teutonic root was frowned on So other
signposts are several Latin particles, or numerals used as affixes (contra-,
pre-y a- or ad-, ante-, per-, multi-y um-, di~, tn-) Some of these are
easily confused with Greek ones (a-, anti-> pen-) which do not mean
the same The abstract noun-ending -ton in constipation is also Latin,
as is the termination -it in deposit The following is a list of the more
common affixes of Latin or French origin and the characteristic
meaning of the prefixes

(a) PREFIXES
	

ab- (away)                evtra- (beyond)
	re- (again)

ad- (to)                    in- (in)
	retro- (backward)

ambi- (both)             in-, ne-> non- (not)
	semi- (half)

ante- (before)           inter- (between)
	sine- (without)

bene- (well)               intra- (within)
	sub- (under)

bi- (twice)                pen- (almost)
	subter- (under)

circum- (around)      per- (through)
	super- (above)

contra- (against)      post- (after)
	tram" (across)

con- (with)               pre- (before)
	tn- (three)

de- (from)                prefer- (beyond)
	ultra- (beyond)

ex-, e- (out of)        pro- (for, forth)
	vice- (in place of)

(J) SUFFIXES
	

-able             -ance                   -esque
	-ite              -ment

~aciom         -ary                     -ess,
	-ity              -many

-acy              -ery or ~ory         -ette
	-ive              -tude

-age              -ent) ant               -ion
	-ise

Like French, all Romance languages have a stock of old words of a
more familiar type derived directly from Vulgar Latin, and a newer,